Int J Biol Sci 2011; 7(2):154-167. doi:10.7150/ijbs.7.154
Olmesartan, an AT1 Antagonist, Attenuates Oxidative Stress, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Cardiac Inflammatory Mediators in Rats with Heart Failure Induced by Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis
1. Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Niigata, Japan.
Studies have demonstrated that angiotensin II has been involved in immune and inflammatory responses which might contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may play a role in myocarditis. Here, we investigated whether olmesartan, an AT1R antagonist protects against experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) by suppression of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory cytokines. EAM was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with porcine cardiac myosin, were divided into two groups and treated with either olmesartan (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for a period of 21 days. Myocardial functional parameters measured by hemodynamic and echocardiographic analyses were significantly improved by the treatment with olmesartan compared with those of vehicle-treated rats. Treatment with olmesartan attenuated the myocardial mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, [Interleukin (IL)-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ)] and the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Myocardial protein expressions of AT1R, NADPH oxidase subunits (p47phox, p67phox, gp91phox) and the expression of markers of oxidative stress (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), and the cardiac apoptosis were also significantly decreased by the treatment with olmesartan compared with those of vehicle-treated rats. Furthermore, olmesartan treatment down-regulated the myocardial expressions of glucose regulated protein-78, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene, caspase-12, phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-JNK. These findings suggest that olmesartan protects against EAM in rats, at least in part via suppression of oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammatory cytokines.
Keywords: Experimental autoimmune myocarditis, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, olmesartan
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Sukumaran V, Watanabe K, Veeraveedu PT, Gurusamy N, Ma M, Thandavarayan RA, Lakshmanan AP, Yamaguchi K, Suzuki K, Kodama M. Olmesartan, an AT1 Antagonist, Attenuates Oxidative Stress, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Cardiac Inflammatory Mediators in Rats with Heart Failure Induced by Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis. Int J Biol Sci 2011; 7(2):154-167. doi:10.7150/ijbs.7.154. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v07p0154.htm