International Journal of Biological Sciences

Impact factor
3.873

ISSN 1449-2288

News feeds of IJBS published articles
My Manuscript
My Account

Journal of Biomedicinenew

Theranostics

International Journal of Medical Sciences

Journal of Cancer

Oncomedicine

Journal of Genomics

Journal of Bone and Joint Infection (JBJI)

Nanotheranostics

PubMed Central Indexed in Journal Impact Factor

Int J Biol Sci 2012; 8(1):93-107. doi:10.7150/ijbs.8.93

Research Paper

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Damsel Bug Alloeorhynchus bakeri (Hemiptera: Nabidae)

Hu Li1,*, Haiyu Liu1,*, Liangming Cao2, Aimin Shi1, Hailin Yang1, Wanzhi Cai1✉

1. Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
2. The Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of China State Forestry Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
* These authors contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

The complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the damsel bug, Alloeorhynchus bakeri, has been completed and annotated in this study. It represents the first sequenced mitochondrial genome of heteropteran family Nabidae. The circular genome is 15, 851 bp in length with an A+T content of 73.5%, contains the typical 37 genes that are arranged in the same order as that of the putative ancestor of hexapods. Nucleotide composition and codon usage are similar to other known heteropteran mitochondrial genomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) use standard initiation codons (methionine and isoleucine), except COI, which started with TTG. Canonical TAA and TAG termination codons are found in eight protein-coding genes, the remaining five (COI, COII, COIII, ND5, ND1) have incomplete termination codons (T or TA). PCGs of two strands present opposite CG skew which is also reflected by the nucleotide composition and codon usage. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, except the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNASer (AGN) which forms a simple loop as known in many other metazoa. Secondary structure models of the ribosomal RNA genes of A. bakeri are presented, similar to those proposed for other insect orders. There are six domains and 45 helices and three domains and 27 helices in the secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS, respectively. The major non-coding region (also called control region) between the small ribosomal subunit and the tRNAIle gene includes two special regions. The first region includes four 133 bp tandem repeat units plus a partial copy of the repeat (28 bp of the beginning), and the second region at the end of control region contains 4 potential stem-loop structures. Finally, PCGs sequences were used to perform a phylogenetic study. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly support Nabidae as the sister group to Anthocoridae and Miridae.

Keywords: Mitochondrial genome, Alloeorhynchus bakeri, Nabidae, RNA secondary structure, phylogenetic relationship, Cimicomorpha

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Li H, Liu H, Cao L, Shi A, Yang H, Cai W. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Damsel Bug Alloeorhynchus bakeri (Hemiptera: Nabidae). Int J Biol Sci 2012; 8(1):93-107. doi:10.7150/ijbs.8.93. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v08p0093.htm