Int J Biol Sci 2013; 9(1):94-107. doi:10.7150/ijbs.5246
AGE-LDL Activates Toll Like Receptor 4 Pathway and Promotes Inflammatory Cytokines Production in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells
Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Research Institute of Nephrology Guangdong Province, Key Lab for Organ Failure Research, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou, P.R. China.
Background/Aims: Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products, the well-recognized pro-inflammatory molecules, has been detected in renal tissues including tubules. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of advanced glycation end-products modified low density lipoprotein (AGE-LDL) in inflammatory cytokines production in human proximal tubular epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism. Methods: The Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production was examined by real-time PCR and ELISA. The expression of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 (TLR2/4) was detected by flow cytometry and western blot. The interaction of TLR2/4 with AGE-LDL was examined by co-immunoprecipitation assay. The involvement of MyD88 and the downstream molecules in inflammatory cytokines production was examined by siRNA and pharmacologic inhibitors, respectively. Results: AGE-LDL interacted with TLR2 and TLR4. TLR4 siRNA showed stronger inhibition on AGE-LDL-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production than that of TLR2 siRNA. Silencing MyD88, but not TRIF, inhibited AGE-LDL-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production. AGE-LDL stimulation led to phosphorylation of JNK, p38, Akt and the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Pharmacologic inhibitor of Akt suppressed AGE-LDL-induced activation of NF-κB, but the inhibitor of JNK, p38 or ERK1/2 had no effect. Blocking MyD88, p38, JNK, Akt or NF-κB attenuated AGE-LDL-triggered IL-6 production. Conclusion: AGE-LDL induced IL-6 and IL-8 production via TLR2/4-MyD88-dependent pathway in tubular epithelial cells. These data suggest that activation of TLRs signaling in tubular epithelial cells by AGE-LDL might be a novel mechanism for the tubulointerstitial inflammation.
Keywords: AGE-LDL, Toll like receptor, MyD88, NF-κB, IL-6.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Cheng A, Dong Y, Zhu F, Liu Y, Hou FF, Nie J. AGE-LDL Activates Toll Like Receptor 4 Pathway and Promotes Inflammatory Cytokines Production in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells. Int J Biol Sci 2013; 9(1):94-107. doi:10.7150/ijbs.5246. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v09p0094.htm