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Int J Biol Sci 2013; 9(5):463-471. doi:10.7150/ijbs.5404

Research Paper

Karyotypic and Molecular Genetic Changes Associated With Fetal Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Results of a Retrospective 4-Year Ultrasonic Diagnosis Study

Bihui Bao1,2,*, Yu Wang2,*, Hua Hu1, Hong Yao1, Yuyan Li1, Shuai Tang1, Lihong Zheng2, Yan Xu1, Zhiqing Liang1,✉

1. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China;
2. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Chengdu Military General Hospital, Chengdu 610083, China.
* These authors equally contributed to this study.

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the incidence of aneuploidy in fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHDs) and to further identify submicroscopic changes and global DNA methylation levels as potential biomarkers in complex CHD cases.

Methods: Fetuses at high risk for birth defects or with obvious sonographic anomalies were recruited at the Prenatal Diagnosis Center and Ultrasonic Diagnosis Center. Elective fetal karyotyping and DNA copy number and promoter methylation analyses were carried out following parental consent. G-banded karyotyping was performed to detect fetal aneuploidy. Copy number variations (CNVs) were detected using the Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 and validated by real time PCR. Global DNA methylation analyses were conducted using a Roche NimbleGen Human DNA Methylation 3x720K Array, and DNA methylation differences were assayed by a Sequenom MassARRAY EpiTYPER.

Results: Conventional karyotyping identified 30 cases with aneuploidy in 179 CHD fetuses. Various CNVs were found in two aneuploid fetuses and in five euploid CHD fetuses. Verified segmental deletion or duplications were not directly associated with cardiovascular malformations except in DAAM1 and GATA6. Verifiable aberrant DNA methylation could not be identified in three complex CHD fetuses.

Conclusions: In this study, Trisomy 18, Trisomy 21 and 45,XO were the most common aneuploidies identified in CHD fetuses. In the affected samples, only DAAM1 deletion and GATA6 amplification could be associated with cardiovascular biological processes.

Keywords: Congenital heart defect, Karyotyping, Copy number variants, Methylation level.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Bao B, Wang Y, Hu H, Yao H, Li Y, Tang S, Zheng L, Xu Y, Liang Z. Karyotypic and Molecular Genetic Changes Associated With Fetal Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Results of a Retrospective 4-Year Ultrasonic Diagnosis Study. Int J Biol Sci 2013; 9(5):463-471. doi:10.7150/ijbs.5404. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v09p0463.htm