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Int J Biol Sci 2013; 9(9):980-988. doi:10.7150/ijbs.7251

Research Paper

Diabetes Inhibits Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Astrocyte Activation - an Observation in the Cingulate Cortex

Li Jing1, Li Mai1, Jian-Zhong Zhang1✉, Jian-Gang Wang1, Yue Chang1, Jian-Da Dong1, Feng-Ying Guo1, P. Andy Li2,3✉

1. Department of Pathology, Ningxia Medical University; Ningxia Key Laboratory of Cerebrocranial Diseases, Incubation Base of National Key Laboratory, Yinchuan, Ningxia, P. R. China.
2. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biomanufacturing Research Institute and Technological Enterprise (BRITE), North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
3. Department of Neurology, the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia Key Laboratory of Cerebrocranial Diseases, Incubation Base of National Key Laboratory, Yinchuan, Ningxia, P. R. China.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to study the effect of diabetic hyperglycemia on astrocytes after forebrain ischemia. Streptozotocin (STZ)-injected hyperglycemic and vehicle-injected normoglycemic rats were subjected to 15 minutes of forebrain ischemia. The brains were harvested in sham-operated controls and in animals with 1 and 6 h of recirculation following ischemia. Brain damage was accessed by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and TdT-mediated-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Anti-GFAP antibody was employed to study astrocytes. The results showed that the 15-minute ischemia caused neuronal death after 1 and 6 h of reperfusion as revealed by increased numbers of karyopyknotic cells, edema, TUNEL-positive and active caspase-3-positive cells. Ischemia also activated astrocytes in the cingulated cortex as reflected by astrocyte stomata hypertrophy, elongated dendrites and increases in the number of dendrites, and immunoreactivity of GFAP. Diabetic hyperglycemia further enhanced neuronal death and suppressed ischemia-induced astrocyte activation. Further, diabetes-damaged astrocytes have increased withdrawal of the astrocyte end-foot from the cerebral blood vessel wall. It is concluded that diabetes-induced suppression and damages to astrocytes may contribute to its detrimental effects on recovery from cerebral ischemia.

Keywords: astrocyte, blood-brain barrier, cleaved caspase-3, cerebral ischemia, diabetes, hyperglycemia, TUNEL.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Jing L, Mai L, Zhang JZ, Wang JG, Chang Y, Dong JD, Guo FY, Li PA. Diabetes Inhibits Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Astrocyte Activation - an Observation in the Cingulate Cortex. Int J Biol Sci 2013; 9(9):980-988. doi:10.7150/ijbs.7251. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v09p0980.htm