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Int J Biol Sci 2016; 12(5):580-593. doi:10.7150/ijbs.14578

Research Paper

Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Dental Pulp Cells via Generation of Oxidative Stress

Yang Jiao1,#, Sai Ma1,#, Yirong Wang2,#, Jing Li3, Lequn Shan4, Jinlong Sun1, Jihua Chen1,✉

1. State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, PR China
2. State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, PR China
3. Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, PR China
4. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tangdu hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, PR China
# These authors have contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

The polymerizable antibacterial monomer methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) has provided an effective strategy to combat dental caries. However, the application of such material raises the question about the biological safety and the question remains open. The mechanism of this toxic action, however, is not yet clearly understood. The present study aims at providing novel insight into the possible causal link between cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as apoptosis in human dental pulp cells exposed to DMAE-CB. The enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione, as well as differential changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in DMAE-CB-treated cells indicated oxidative stress. By using substances that can alter GSH synthesis, we found that GSH was the key component in the regulation of cell response towards oxidative stress induced by DMAE-CB. The increase in oxidative stress-sensitive 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content, formation of γ-H2AX and cell cycle G1 phase arrest indicated that DNA damage occurred as a result of the interaction between DNA base and ROS beyond the capacities of antioxidant mechanisms in cells exposed to DMAE-CB. Such oxidative DNA damage thus triggers the activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) signaling, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and destruction of mitochondrial morphology and function.

Keywords: methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride, oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis, mitochondria.

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How to cite this article:
Jiao Y, Ma S, Wang Y, Li J, Shan L, Sun J, Chen J. Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Dental Pulp Cells via Generation of Oxidative Stress. Int J Biol Sci 2016; 12(5):580-593. doi:10.7150/ijbs.14578. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v12p0580.htm