International Journal of Biological Sciences

Impact factor
3.873

ISSN 1449-2288

News feeds of IJBS published articles
My Manuscript
My Account

Journal of Biomedicinenew

Theranostics

International Journal of Medical Sciences

Journal of Cancer

Oncomedicine

Journal of Genomics

Journal of Bone and Joint Infection (JBJI)

Nanotheranostics

Journal of Genomics now in PubMed/PubMed Central. Submit manuscript...

PubMed Central Indexed in Journal Impact Factor

Int J Biol Sci 2009; 5(4):377-387. doi:10.7150/ijbs.5.377

Research Paper

Chemoprevention of rat liver toxicity and carcinogenesis by Spirulina

Mohamed F Ismail3, Doaa A Ali3, Augusta Fernando1, Mohamed E Abdraboh1, Rajiv L Gaur1, Wael M Ibrahim3, Madhwa HG Raj2, Allal Ouhtit1,3 ✉

1. Department of Pathology and Department of Genetics, Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA;
2. Department of Ob Gyn and Biochemistry, Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA;
3. Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Abstract

Spirulina platensis (SP) is a filamentous cyanobacterium microalgae with potent dietary phyto-antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous properties. The present study aimed to investigate the chemopreventive effect of SP against rat liver toxicity and carcinogenesis induced by dibutyl nitrosamine (DBN) precursors, and further characterized its underlying mechanisms of action in HepG2 cell line. Investigation by light and electron microscopy showed that DBN treatment induced severe liver injury and histopathological abnormalities, which were prevented by SP supplementation. The incidence of liver tumors was significantly reduced from 80 to 20% by SP. Immunohistochemical results indicated that both PCNA and p53 were highly expressed in the liver of DBN-treated rats, but were significantly reduced by SP supplementation. Molecular analysis indicated that SP treatment inhibited cell proliferation, which was accompanied by increased p21 and decreased Rb expression levels at 48hrs post-treatment. In addition, SP increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 expression, indicating induction of apoptosis by 48hrs. This is the first report of the in vivo chemopreventive effect of SP against DBN-induced rat liver cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis, suggesting its potential use in chemoprevention of cancer.

Keywords: Spirulina platensis, Phyto-antioxidant, Liver toxicity, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Electron microscopy, p53

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Ismail MF, Ali DA, Fernando A, Abdraboh ME, Gaur RL, Ibrahim WM, Raj MH, Ouhtit A. Chemoprevention of rat liver toxicity and carcinogenesis by Spirulina. Int J Biol Sci 2009; 5(4):377-387. doi:10.7150/ijbs.5.377. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v05p0377.htm