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Int J Biol Sci 2011; 7(9):1382-1390. doi:10.7150/ijbs.7.1382


Role of Co-stimulation in Leishmaniasis

Rashmi Tuladhar1,2, Gayathri Natarajan1,2, Abhay R Satoskar1,2 ✉

1. Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43221, USA.
2. Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43221, USA.


Leishmania are obligate intracellular parasites that cause a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from cutaneous, mucocutaneous and the visceral kind. Persistence or resolution of leishmaniasis is governed by host immune response. Co-stimulation is an important secondary signal that governs the extent, strength and direction of the immune response that follows. Co-stimulation by CD40, B7 and OX40 family has been shown to influence the outcome following Leishmania infection and manipulation of these pathways has shown promise for use in immune therapy of leishmaniasis. In this review, we discuss the roles of CD40, B7 and OX40 co-stimulatory pathways in regulating immunity to Leishmania and their implications in the treatment of this disease.

Keywords: Leishmaniasis, Leishmania, co-stimulatory pathways, immunity

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Tuladhar R, Natarajan G, Satoskar AR. Role of Co-stimulation in Leishmaniasis. Int J Biol Sci 2011; 7(9):1382-1390. doi:10.7150/ijbs.7.1382. Available from