Int J Biol Sci 2017; 13(11):1387-1397. doi:10.7150/ijbs.21635


Risk Factors and Preventions of Breast Cancer

Yi-Sheng Sun1, Zhao Zhao2, Zhang-Nv Yang1, Fang Xu1, Hang-Jing Lu1, Zhi-Yong Zhu1, Wen Shi1, Jianmin Jiang1, Ping-Ping Yao1✉, Han-Ping Zhu1✉

1. Key Lab of Vaccine against Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China;
2. Centre of Laboratory Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital.


Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women. The development of breast cancer is a multi-step process involving multiple cell types, and its prevention remains challenging in the world. Early diagnosis of breast cancer is one of the best approaches to prevent this disease. In some developed countries, the 5-year relative survival rate of breast cancer patients is above 80% due to early prevention. In the recent decade, great progress has been made in the understanding of breast cancer as well as in the development of preventative methods. The pathogenesis and tumor drug-resistant mechanisms are revealed by discovering breast cancer stem cells, and many genes are found related to breast cancer. Currently, people have more drug options for the chemoprevention of breast cancer, while biological prevention has been recently developed to improve patients' quality of life. In this review, we will summarize key studies of pathogenesis, related genes, risk factors and preventative methods on breast cancer over the past years. These findings represent a small step in the long fight against breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, pathogenesis, risk factor, prevention.

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How to cite this article:
Sun YS, Zhao Z, Yang ZN, Xu F, Lu HJ, Zhu ZY, Shi W, Jiang J, Yao PP, Zhu HP. Risk Factors and Preventions of Breast Cancer. Int J Biol Sci 2017; 13(11):1387-1397. doi:10.7150/ijbs.21635. Available from