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Int J Biol Sci 2018; 14(7):736-747. doi:10.7150/ijbs.24523

Research Paper

Improvement of Animal Feed Additives of Ginkgo Leaves through Solid-state Fermentation using Aspergillus niger

Jiahong Wang1,2,3, Fuliang Cao2✉, Erzheng Su1,2, Linguo Zhao2, Wensheng Qin3✉

1. College of Light Industry and Food Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China.
2. Co-innovation Center for the Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China.
3. Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Ontario, P7B 5E1, Canada.


To improve the quality of Ginkgo biloba leaves as biological feed additives, twelve Aspergillus niger strains were evaluated for their growth in the moisture ginkgo leaf meal media through solid-state fermentation. The results relating to flavor, flavonoids, enzymes, crude protein, and reducing sugars showed A. niger Gyx086 strain was capable of efficiently fermenting ginkgo leaves. The optimal cultural conditions were three loops of spores inoculation to every 75 g medium containing 60 % water, grew at 28˚C for 48 h. The Gyx086 grew well in the medium. The fermented leaves generated a strong sweet-smelling odor, could be identified by electronic nose equipment using a cluster analysis, other than the original offensive smell from non-fermented ginkgo leaves. Each gram dried culture with Gyx086 showed 2.83Int J Biol Sci inline graphic109 CFU of A. niger; 3.19 ± 0.37 FPU of acid-resistant filter paper activity. Its total contents of flavonoids, reducing sugars, and crude proteins were 19.95 ± 0.23 mg, 24.28 ± 2.35 mg, and 162.81 ± 3.46 mg in each gram of leaves, 26.03 %, 62.73 %, and 14.58 % higher than the controls, respectively. The essential amino acids and total amino acids contents were 96.41 % and 16.49 % higher than the controls.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, Ginkgo biloba leaves, Solid-state fermentation, Biological feed additive, Filter paper activity, Flavonoids

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( See for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Wang J, Cao F, Su E, Zhao L, Qin W. Improvement of Animal Feed Additives of Ginkgo Leaves through Solid-state Fermentation using Aspergillus niger. Int J Biol Sci 2018; 14(7):736-747. doi:10.7150/ijbs.24523. Available from