Int J Biol Sci 2012; 8(2):272-288. doi:10.7150/ijbs.2929
TGF-β and BMP Signaling in Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation
1. Institute of Genetics, Life Science College, Zhejiang University, 388 Yuhang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling is involved in a vast majority of cellular processes and is fundamentally important throughout life. TGF-β/BMPs have widely recognized roles in bone formation during mammalian development and exhibit versatile regulatory functions in the body. Signaling transduction by TGF-β/BMPs is specifically through both canonical Smad-dependent pathways (TGF-β/BMP ligands, receptors and Smads) and non-canonical Smad-independent signaling pathway (e.g. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, MAPK). Following TGF-β/BMP induction, both the Smad and p38 MAPK pathways converge at the Runx2 gene to control mesenchymal precursor cell differentiation. The coordinated activity of Runx2 and TGF-β/BMP-activated Smads is critical for formation of the skeleton. Recent advances in molecular and genetic studies using gene targeting in mice enable a better understanding of TGF-β/BMP signaling in bone and in the signaling networks underlying osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of TGF-β/BMP signaling in bone from studies of genetic mouse models and human diseases caused by the disruption of TGF-β/BMP signaling. This review also highlights the different modes of cross-talk between TGF-β/BMP signaling and the signaling pathways of MAPK, Wnt, Hedgehog, Notch, and FGF in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation.
Keywords: Osteoblasts, Bone, TGF signaling, BMP signaling, Smad, Runx2
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How to cite this article:
Chen G, Deng C, Li YP. TGF-β and BMP Signaling in Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation. Int J Biol Sci 2012; 8(2):272-288. doi:10.7150/ijbs.2929. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v08p0272.htm