International Journal of Biological Sciences

Impact factor

ISSN 1449-2288

News feeds of IJBS published articles
Manuscript login

open access Global reach, higher impact

Journal of Genomics in PubMed Central. Submit manuscript now...


International Journal of Medical Sciences

Journal of Cancer

Journal of Genomics


Journal of Bone and Joint Infection (JBJI)


Journal of Biomedicine

PubMed Central Indexed in Journal Impact Factor

Int J Biol Sci 2015; 11(9):1056-1072. doi:10.7150/ijbs.12408

Research Paper

Knockout of SRC-1 and SRC-3 in Mice Decreases Cardiomyocyte Proliferation and Causes a Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy Phenotype

Xian Chen1, Li Qin1, Zhaoliang Liu1, Lan Liao1, James F. Martin2, Jianming Xu1, 3, ✉

1. Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
2. Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
3. Sichuan Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, China.


Noncompaction cardiomyopathy (NCC) is a congenital heart disease that causes ventricular dysfunction and high mortality rate in children. The mechanisms responsible for NCC are still unknown. The steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and SRC-3 are transcriptional coactivators for nuclear hormone receptors and certain other transcription factors that regulate many genes in development and organ function. However, the roles of SRC-1/3 in heart morphogenesis, function and NCC occurrence are unknown. This study aims to examine the spatial and temporal expression patterns of SRC-1/3 in the heart and investigate the specific roles of SRC-1/3 in heart development, function and NCC occurrence. Immunochemical analysis detected SRC-1/3 expressions in the proliferating cardiomyocytes of mouse heart at prenatal and neonatal stages, while these expressions disappeared within two weeks after birth. Through generating and characterizing mouse lines with global or cardiomyocyte-specific knockouts of SRC-1/3, we found ablation of SRC-1/3 in the myocardial lineage resulted in prominent trabeculae, deep intertrabecular recesses and thin ventricular wall and septum. These developmental defects caused a failure of trabecular compaction, decreased internal ventricular dimension, reduced cardiac ejection fraction and output and led to a high rate of postnatal mortality. Collectively, these structural and functional abnormalities closely simulate the phenotype of NCC patients. Further molecular analysis of cardiomyocytes in vivo and in vitro revealed that SRC-1/3 directly up-regulate cyclin E2, cyclin B1 and myocardin to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, SRC-1/3 are required for cardiomyocyte proliferation and differentiation at earlier developmental stages, and their dysfunction causes NCC-like abnormalities in the hearts of newborn and adult mice.

Keywords: knockout mice, heart diseases, myocyte proliferation, cardiac output, nuclear receptor coactivator

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Chen X, Qin L, Liu Z, Liao L, Martin JF, Xu J. Knockout of SRC-1 and SRC-3 in Mice Decreases Cardiomyocyte Proliferation and Causes a Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy Phenotype. Int J Biol Sci 2015; 11(9):1056-1072. doi:10.7150/ijbs.12408. Available from