International Journal of Biological Sciences

Impact factor

ISSN 1449-2288

News feeds of IJBS published articles
Manuscript login

open access Global reach, higher impact

Journal of Genomics - Submit manuscript now...


International Journal of Medical Sciences

Journal of Cancer

Journal of Genomics



Journal of Biomedicine

PubMed Central Indexed in Journal Impact Factor

Int J Biol Sci 2016; 12(6):653-666. doi:10.7150/ijbs.14577

Research Paper

RNA-Seq and iTRAQ Reveal the Dwarfing Mechanism of Dwarf Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum L.)

Yi Wang1*, Xue Xiao1*, Xiaolu Wang1*, Jian Zeng2, Houyang Kang1, Xing Fan1, Lina Sha1, Haiqin Zhang1, Yonghong Zhou1✉

1. Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China.
2. College of Resources, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China.
*The authors contributed equally to this work.


The dwarfing mechanism of Rht-dp in dwarf Polish wheat (DPW) is unknown. Each internode of DPW was significantly shorter than it in high Polish wheat (HPW), and the dwarfism was insensitive to photoperiod, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), cytokinin (CK), auxin and brassinolide (BR). To understand the mechanism, three sets of transcripts, DPW, HPW, and a chimeric set (a combination of DPW and HPW), were constructed using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Based on the chimeric transcripts, 2,446 proteins were identified using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). A total of 108 unigenes and 12 proteins were considered as dwarfism-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), respectively. Among of these DEGs and DEPs, 6 DEGs and 6 DEPs were found to be involved in flavonoid and S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) metabolisms; 5 DEGs and 3 DEPs were involved in cellulose metabolism, cell wall plasticity and cell expansion; 2 DEGs were auxin transporters; 2 DEPs were histones; 1 DEP was a peroxidase. These DEGs and DEPs reduced lignin and cellulose contents, increased flavonoid content, possibly decreased S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) and polyamine contents and increased S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) content in DPW stems, which could limit auxin transport and reduce extensibility of the cell wall, finally limited cell expansion (the cell size of DPW was significantly smaller than HPW cells) and caused dwarfism in DPW.

Keywords: RNA-Seq, iTRAQ, dwarfism, dwarf Polish wheat, flavonoid, cellulose.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Wang Y, Xiao X, Wang X, Zeng J, Kang H, Fan X, Sha L, Zhang H, Zhou Y. RNA-Seq and iTRAQ Reveal the Dwarfing Mechanism of Dwarf Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum L.). Int J Biol Sci 2016; 12(6):653-666. doi:10.7150/ijbs.14577. Available from