Int J Biol Sci 2016; 12(3):314-325. doi:10.7150/ijbs.15001
Pancreatic Cancer Genetics
Laboratory of Translational Genomics, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Amundadottir LT. Pancreatic Cancer Genetics. Int J Biol Sci 2016; 12(3):314-325. doi:10.7150/ijbs.15001. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v12p0314.htm
Although relatively rare, pancreatic tumors are highly lethal . In the United States, an estimated 48,960 individuals will be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and 40,560 will die from this disease in 2015 . Globally, 337,872 new pancreatic cancer cases and 330,391 deaths were estimated in 2012 . In contrast to most other cancers, mortality rates for pancreatic cancer are not improving; in the US, it is predicted to become the second leading cause of cancer related deaths by 2030 [3, 4]. The vast majority of tumors arise in the exocrine pancreas, with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) accounting for approximately 95% of tumors. Tumors arising in the endocrine pancreas (pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors) represent less than 5% of all pancreatic tumors . Smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), obesity and pancreatitis are the most consistent epidemiological risk factors for pancreatic cancer . Family history is also a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer with odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.7-2.3 for first-degree relatives in most studies, indicating that shared genetic factors may play a role in the etiology of this disease [6-9]. This review summarizes the current knowledge of germline pancreatic cancer risk variants with a special emphasis on common susceptibility alleles identified through Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS).
Keywords: pancreatic tumors