1. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biomanufacturing Research Institute and Technological Enterprise (BRITE), North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
2. Department of Pathology and Ningxia Key Laboratory for Cerebrocranial Diseases, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, China.
The long-term impacts of cerebral ischemia and diabetic ischemia on astrocytes and oligodendrocytes have not been defined. The objective of this study is to define profile of astrocyte and changes of myelin in diabetic and non-diabetic rats subjected to focal ischemia.
Focal cerebral ischemia of 30-min duration was induced in streptozotocin-induced diabetic and vehicle-injected normoglycemic rats. The brains were harvested for immunohistochemistry of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) at various reperfusion endpoints ranging from 30 min up to 28 days. The results showed that activate astrocytes were observed after 30 min and peaked at 3 h to 1 day after reperfusion in ischemic penumbra, and peaked at 7 days of reperfusion in ischemic core. Diabetes inhibited the activation of astrocytes in ischemic hemisphere. Demyelination occurred after 30 min of reperfusion in ischemic core and peaked at 1 day. Diabetes caused more severe demyelination compared with non-diabetic rats. Remyelination started at 7 days and completed at 14 and 28 days in ischemic region. Diabetes inhibited the remyelination processes. It is concluded that ischemia activates astrocytes and induces demyelination. Diabetes inhibits the activation of astrocytes, exacerbates the demyelination and delays the remyelination processes. These may contribute to the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia on ischemic brain damage.
Keywords: astrocyte, cerebral ischemia, diabetes, hyperglycemia, myelin, oligodendrocyte, remyelination.