1. Department of Cancer Genetics, Center for Genetics and Pharmacology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, New York, United States of America;
2. Department of Urology, Center for Genetics and Pharmacology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, New York, United States of America;
3. Department of Pathology, Center for Genetics and Pharmacology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, New York, United States of America;
4. Molecular Chemoprevention and Therapeutics, The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, Austin, Minnesota, United States of America;
5. Department of Biostatistics, University of Buffalo, New York, United States of America.
Genuine racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) biology have been considered among the potential reasons to explain PCa disparities. There is no animal model to represent all aspects of human PCa and, more specifically, to be used for PCa disparity research. The lack of a spontaneously transformed in vitro cell-based model system has been a significant impediment to investigating and understanding potential molecular mechanisms, and the hormonal, genetic, and epigenetic factors underlying the biological and clinical aggressiveness of PCa in African American (AA) men.
In this study, we established and characterized the E006AA-hT cell line as a highly tumorigenic subline of the previously characterized primary AA-PCa cell line, E006AA. Extensive characterization of the E006AA-hT cell line was accomplished using cytodifferentiation and prostate-specific markers, spectral karyotyping, cell line authentication assays, cell proliferation and migration assays, and in vitro tumorigenesis assays.
Spectral karyotyping of E006AA-hT showed a hypertriploid chromosome complement and shared cytogenetic changes similar to its parental cells such as diploid X, absence of Y-chromosomes, numerical gains in chromosomes 5,6,8,10,17,20,21, and marker chromosomes of unknown origin. In addition, E006AA-hT also presented numerous clonal and structural aberrations such as insertion, deletion, duplication, and translocations in chromosomes 1-5, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, and 18. The E006AA-hT cell line was shown to be highly tumorigenic and produced tumors at an accelerated growth rate in both athymic nude and triple-deficient SCID mice.
Silencing the mutated androgen receptor (AR-599 Ser>Gly) did not affect proliferation (loss-of-function), but decreased migration (gain-of-function) in E006AA-hT and its parental cell type. These data support that AR-point mutations may lead simultaneously to different “loss-of-function” and “gain-of-function” phenotypes in PCa cells. E006AA-Par and its subline as the only available spontaneously transformed low- and highly-tumorigenic primary AA-PCa cell lines could be used for basic and translational research aimed in supporting prostate cancer disparity research.
Keywords: Prostate Cancer, African American, Androgen Receptor, E006AA, tumorigenic.