Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(14):2506-2517. doi:10.7150/ijbs.47068

Review

Insights into Nanomedicine for Immunotherapeutics in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the head and neck

Qiang Xu1#, Meiyu Fang2#, Jing Zhu3#, Haoru Dong4, Jun Cao2, Lin Yan5, Fransisca Leonard6, Felix Oppel7, Holger Sudhoff7, Andreas M. Kaufmann8, Andreas E. Albers9, Xu Qian3✉

1. Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital); Institute of Cancer and Basic Medicine (IBMC), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Hangzhou, P.R. China.
2. Key Laboratory of Head & Neck Cancer Translational Research of Zhejiang Province, Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital); Institute of Cancer and Basic Medicine (IBMC), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Hangzhou, P.R. China.
3. Department of Clinical Laboratory, Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital); Institute of Cancer and Basic Medicine (IBMC), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Hangzhou, P.R. China.
4. First School of Clinical Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, P.R. China.
5. Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P.R. China.
6. Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, USA.
7. Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Klinikum Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany.
8. Clinic for Gynecology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.
9. Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.
#Equal contributions to this work.

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Citation:
Xu Q, Fang M, Zhu J, Dong H, Cao J, Yan L, Leonard F, Oppel F, Sudhoff H, Kaufmann AM, Albers AE, Qian X. Insights into Nanomedicine for Immunotherapeutics in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the head and neck. Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(14):2506-2517. doi:10.7150/ijbs.47068. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v16p2506.htm

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Abstract

Immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint blockade benefit only a portion of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The multidisciplinary field of nanomedicine is emerging as a promising strategy to achieve maximal anti-tumor effect in cancer immunotherapy and to turn non-responders into responders. Various methods have been developed to deliver therapeutic agents that can overcome bio-barriers, improve therapeutic delivery into the tumor and lymphoid tissues and reduce adverse effects in normal tissues. Additional modification strategies also have been employed to improve targeting and boost cytotoxic T cell-based immune responses. Here, we review the state-of-the-art use of nanotechnologies in the laboratory, in advanced preclinical phases as well as those running through clinical trials assessing their advantages and challenges.

Keywords: nanotherapeutics, drug delivery, cancer immunotherapy, nanovaccine, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, human papillomavirus