Int J Biol Sci 2022; 18(1):229-241. doi:10.7150/ijbs.65763 This issue
1. Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030.
2. Dan L. Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030.
#Dr. Q. Mo's current affiliation is Department of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, 3011 Holly Dr, Tampa, FL 33612
Simultaneous P53 loss and activation of the PTEN-restricted PI3K-AKT pathway frequently occur in aggressive breast cancers. P53 loss causes genome instability, while PTEN loss and/or activating mutations of PIK3CA and AKT promote cancer cell proliferation that also increases incidences of genomic aberrations. However, the genomic alterations associated with P53 loss and activated PTEN-PI3K-AKT signaling in breast cancer have not been defined. Spatiotemporally controlled breast cancer models with inactivation of both P53 and Pten in adult mice have not been established for studying genomic alterations. Herein, we deleted both floxed Pten and Tp53 genes in the mammary gland epithelial cells in adult mice using a RCAS virus-mediated Cre-expressing system. These mice developed small tumors in 21 weeks, and poorly differentiated larger tumors in 26 weeks. In these tumors, we identified 360 genes mutated by nonsynonymous point mutations and small insertions and deletions (NSPMs/InDels), 435 genes altered by copy number amplifications (CNAs), and 450 genes inactivated by copy number deletions (CNDs). Importantly, 22.2%, 75.9% and 27.3% of these genes were also altered in human breast tumors with P53 and PTEN losses or P53 loss and activated PI3K-AKT signaling by NSPMs/InDels, CNAs and CNDs, respectively. Therefore, inactivation of P53 and Pten in adult mice causes rapid-growing breast tumors, and these tumors recapitulate a significant number of genetic aberrations in human breast tumors with inactivated P53 and activated PTEN-PI3K-AKT signaling. Further characterization of these commonly altered genes in breast cancer should help to identify novel cancer-driving genes and molecular targets for developing therapeutics.
Keywords: breast cancer, PTEN, P53, mouse model, genome sequencing, genomic aberration