1. Department of Orthopedics, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
2. School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
3. Morrison Academy Taichung, Taichung, Taiwan
4. Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
5. Institute of Oral Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
6. Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
7. Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
* Ko-Hsiu Lu and Peace Wun-Ang Lu contributed equally to this work.
Curcumin is a natural polyphenol phytochemical derived from turmeric with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties but is concerned about poor solubility in water, absorption, and metabolic stability. Potent metastatic osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone cancer in children, adolescents, and young adults. It is responsible for low survival rates because of its high rate of metastasis to the lungs. To improve poor bioavailability, numerous curcumin analogs were developed to possess anticancer characteristics through a variety of biological pathways involved in cytotoxicity, proliferation, autophagy, sensitizing chemotherapy, and metastases. This review provides an overview of their various pharmacological functions, molecular mechanisms, and therapeutic potential as a remedy for human osteosarcoma. To enhance therapeutic efficacy, several liposomal nanoparticles, nanocarriers, multifunctional micelles, and three-dimensional printed scaffolds have also been developed for the controlled delivery of curcumin targeting human osteosarcoma cells. Consequently, curcumin and several potential analogs and delivery formulations are optimistic candidates to improve the currently available strategy for human osteosarcoma. However, further insight into the mechanism of action of promising curcumin analogs and the development of carriers in clinical trials of osteosarcoma needs to be investigated to improve their overall potency and clinical utility, in particular the anti-metastatic effect.
Keywords: Bioavailability, carrier, curcumin analogs, therapeutic efficacy, human osteosarcoma