Int J Biol Sci 2011; 7(4):487-495. doi:10.7150/ijbs.7.487

Research Paper

Massive Production of All-female Diploids and Triploids in the Crucian Carp

KaiKun Luo*, Jun Xiao*, ShaoJun Liu, Jing Wang, WeiGuo He, Jie Hu, QinBo Qin, Chun Zhang, Min Tao, Yun Liu

Key Laboratory of Protein Chemistry and Developmental Biology of State Education Ministry of China, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, ChangSha, 410081, China.
* These authors contributed equally to this work.

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Luo K, Xiao J, Liu S, Wang J, He W, Hu J, Qin Q, Zhang C, Tao M, Liu Y. Massive Production of All-female Diploids and Triploids in the Crucian Carp. Int J Biol Sci 2011; 7(4):487-495. doi:10.7150/ijbs.7.487. Available from

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In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200) by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ♀) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ♂). We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100). We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-α-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100) and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150), respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry.

Keywords: gynogenesis, sex reversal, all-female diploid, all-female triploid, Stem cell, fish breeding.