Int J Biol Sci 2019; 15(1):105-113. doi:10.7150/ijbs.28669

Review

Remodeling the Microenvironment before Occurrence and Metastasis of Cancer

Xina Zhang1,2,3, Juanjuan Xiang1,2,3✉

1. Hunan Cancer Hospital, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China
2. Cancer Research Institute, School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.
3. The Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis of the Chinese Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

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Citation:
Zhang X, Xiang J. Remodeling the Microenvironment before Occurrence and Metastasis of Cancer. Int J Biol Sci 2019; 15(1):105-113. doi:10.7150/ijbs.28669. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v15p0105.htm

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Abstract

Tumorigenesis and progression of cancer are complex processes which transformed cells and stromal cells interact and co-evolve. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors cause the mutations of cells. The survival of transformed cells critically depends on the circumstances which they reside. The malignant transformed cancer cells reprogram the microenvironment locally and systemically. The formation of premetastatic niche in the secondary organs facilitates cancer cells survival in the distant organs. This review outlines the current understanding of the key roles of premalignant niche and premetastatic niche in cancer progression. We proposed that a niche facilitates survival of transformed cells is characteristics of senescence, stromal fibrosis and obese microenvironment. We also proposed the formation of premetastatic niche in secondary organs is critically influenced by primary cancer cells. Therefore, it suggested that strategies to target the niche can be promising approach to eradicate cancer cells.

Keywords: premalignant niche, premetastatic niche, co-evolution