1. Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, RP China.
2. Cardiovascular Research Institute of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, RP China.
3. Hubei Key Laboratory of Metabolic and Chronic Diseases, Wuhan 430060, RP China.
4. Department of Thyroid and Breast, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, RP China.
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cardiac remodeling is a common characteristic of almost all forms of heart disease, including cardiac infarction, valvular diseases, hypertension, arrhythmia, dilated cardiomyopathy and other conditions. It is not merely a simple outcome induced by an increase in the workload of cardiomyocytes (CMs). The remodeling process is accompanied by abnormalities of cardiac structure as well as disturbance of cardiac function, and emerging evidence suggests that a wide range of cells in the heart participate in the initiation and development of cardiac remodeling. Other than CMs, there are numerous noncardiomyocytes (non-CMs) that regulate the process of cardiac remodeling, such as cardiac fibroblasts and immune cells (including macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and mast cells). In this review, we summarize recent knowledge regarding the definition and significant effects of various non-CMs in the pathogenesis of cardiac remodeling, with a particular emphasis on the involved signaling mechanisms. In addition, we discuss the properties of non-CMs, which serve as targets of many cardiovascular drugs that reduce adverse cardiac remodeling.
Keywords: cardiac remodeling, noncardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblast, immune cells