Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(15):3018-3027. doi:10.7150/ijbs.49302

Review

S-adenosylmethionine tRNA modification: unexpected/unsuspected implications of former/new players

Raffaella Adami, Daniele Bottai

Department of Health Science University of Milan via A. di Rudinì 8 20142 Milan.

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Citation:
Adami R, Bottai D. S-adenosylmethionine tRNA modification: unexpected/unsuspected implications of former/new players. Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(15):3018-3027. doi:10.7150/ijbs.49302. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v16p3018.htm

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Abstract

S-adenosylmethionine supplies methyl groups to many acceptors, including lipids, proteins, RNA, DNA, and a wide range of small molecules. It acts as the precursor in the biosynthesis of metal ion chelating compounds, such as nicotianamine and phytosiderophores, of the polyamines spermidine and spermine and of some plant hormones. Finally, it is the source of catalytic 5′-deoxyadenosyl radicals.

Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes (RS) represent one of the most abundant groups (more than 100,000) of enzymes, exerting a plethora of biological functions, some of which are still unknown.

In this work, we will focus on two RS: CDK5RAP1 and CDKAL1, both of which are involved in tRNA modifications that result in important tRNA folding and stability and in maintaining high translational fidelity. Based on this crucial role, their impairment can be important in the development of different human diseases.

Keywords: Radical S-adenosylmethionine enzymes, Methylthiotransferases, CDK5RAP1, CDKAL1, tRNA modifications, human diseases