Int J Biol Sci 2021; 17(1):307-327. doi:10.7150/ijbs.53589 This issue


A Perspective Of Intestinal Immune-Microbiome Interactions In Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease

Ryan Bruellman, Cristina Llorente

Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

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Bruellman R, Llorente C. A Perspective Of Intestinal Immune-Microbiome Interactions In Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease. Int J Biol Sci 2021; 17(1):307-327. doi:10.7150/ijbs.53589. Available from

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Graphic abstract

Uncovering the intricacies of the gut microbiome and how it interacts with the host immune system has opened up pathways in the search for the treatment of disease conditions. Alcohol-associated liver disease is a major cause of death worldwide. Research has shed light on the breakdown of the protective gut barriers, translocation of gut microbes to the liver and inflammatory immune response to microbes all contributing to alcohol-associated liver disease. This knowledge has opened up avenues for alternative therapies to alleviate alcohol-associated liver disease based on the interaction of the commensal gut microbiome as a key player in the regulation of the immune response. This review describes the relevance of the intestinal immune system, the gut microbiota, and specialized and non-specialized intestinal cells in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis. It also reflects how these components are altered during alcohol-associated liver disease and discusses new approaches for potential future therapies in alcohol-associated liver disease.

Keywords: Liver, intestine, microbiome, immune system, alcohol-associated liver disease