Int J Biol Sci 2021; 17(6):1507-1520. doi:10.7150/ijbs.59534 This issue


The role of CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19: implications for treatment

Yifei Wang, Jingbin Zheng, Md Sahidul Islam, Yang Yang, Yuanjia Hu, Xin Chen

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau SAR 999078, China
These authors have contributed equally to this work.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( See for full terms and conditions.
Wang Y, Zheng J, Islam MS, Yang Y, Hu Y, Chen X. The role of CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19: implications for treatment. Int J Biol Sci 2021; 17(6):1507-1520. doi:10.7150/ijbs.59534. Available from

File import instruction


Graphic abstract

The severe cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) frequently exhibit excessive inflammatory responses, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), coagulopathy, and organ damage. The most striking immunopathology of advanced COVID-19 is cytokine release syndrome or “cytokine storm” that is attributable to the deficiencies in immune regulatory mechanisms. CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are central regulators of immune responses and play an indispensable role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Tregs are likely involved in the attenuation of antiviral defense at the early stage of infection and ameliorating inflammation-induced organ injury at the late stage of COVID-19. In this article, we review and summarize the current understanding of the change of Tregs in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and discuss the potential role of Tregs in the immunopathology of COVID-19. The emerging concept of Treg-targeted therapies, including both adoptive Treg transfer and low dose of IL-2 treatment, is introduced. Furthermore, the potential Treg-boosting effect of therapeutic agents used in the treatment of COVID-19, including dexamethasone, vitamin D, tocilizumab and sarilumab, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, adalimumab and tetrandrine, is discussed. The problems in the current study of Treg cells in COVID-19 and future perspectives are also addressed.

Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, immunopathology