Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai 200233, PR China.
#Co-first authors with equal contributions to this work.
Both osteoblasts and preosteoclasts contribute to the coupling of osteogenesis and angiogenesis, regulating bone regeneration. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a glycoside of cycloartane-type triterpene derived from the Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus, exhibits various biological activities, including stimulating angiogenesis and attenuating ischemic-hypoxic injury. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of AS-IV in osteogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and bone regeneration remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found that AS-IV treatment inhibited osteoclastogenesis, preserved preosteoclasts, and enhanced platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced angiogenesis. Additionally, AS-IV promoted cell viability, osteogenic differentiation, and angiogenic gene expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The activation of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling was found to contribute to the effects of AS-IV on osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis. Furthermore, AS-IV accelerated bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis (DO), as evidenced from the improved radiological and histological manifestations and biomechanical parameters, accompanied by enhanced angiogenesis within the distraction zone. In summary, AS-IV accelerates bone regeneration during DO, by enhancing osteogenesis and preosteoclast-induced angiogenesis simultaneously, partially through AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling. These findings reveal that AS-IV may serve as a potential bioactive molecule for promoting the coupling of osteogenesis and angiogenesis, and imply that AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling may be a promising therapeutic target for patients during DO treatment.
Keywords: astragaloside IV, preosteoclast, angiogenesis, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell, distraction osteogenesis