Int J Biol Sci 2021; 17(10):2476-2486. doi:10.7150/ijbs.59296

Review

Emerging Significance and Therapeutic Potential of Extracellular vesicles

Ruhua Luo, Mengmeng Liu, Tiantian Tan, Qian Yang, Yue Wang, Lianhui Men, Liping Zhao, Honghua Zhang, Shuling Wang, Tian Xie, Qingchang Tian

1. College of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311121, China.
2. Key Laboratory of Elemene Class Anti-Cancer Chinese Medicines; Engineering Laboratory of Development and Application of Traditional Chinese Medicines; Collaborative Innovation Center of Traditional Chinese Medicines of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311121, China.

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Citation:
Luo R, Liu M, Tan T, Yang Q, Wang Y, Men L, Zhao L, Zhang H, Wang S, Xie T, Tian Q. Emerging Significance and Therapeutic Potential of Extracellular vesicles. Int J Biol Sci 2021; 17(10):2476-2486. doi:10.7150/ijbs.59296. Available from https://www.ijbs.com/v17p2476.htm

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Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), are membrane-bound vesicles that have many advantages over traditional nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery. Evidence from recent studies indicate that EVs have therapeutic capability with chemical or biological modification. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) were used as a new type of antigens or tumor vaccines in anti-tumor immunotherapy. With superior characteristics, modified EVs were applied to loaded and delivered synthetic drugs, silencing RNA, and microRNA for treatment. Different surface functionalization strategies have been proposed to improve the therapeutic functions of EVs. Appropriately modified EVs for disease intervention provide new avenues for effective clinical treatment strategies. Therefore, this review aimed at elucidating the therapeutic functions of EVs to generate new ideas for treatment and to unlock their hidden potential in translational medicine.

Keywords: Extracellular vesicles, Exosomes, Tumor-derived exosomes, Delivery vehicles