Int J Biol Sci 2021; 17(11):2899-2911. doi:10.7150/ijbs.58127 This issue


Insight for Immunotherapy of HCMV Infection

Xinmiao Long1,2,3, Yi Qiu1,2,3, Zuping Zhang3✉, Minghua Wu1,2✉

1. Hunan Cancer Hospital and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410013, Hunan, China
2. The Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis of the Chinese Ministry of Health, The Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion of the Chinese Ministry of Education, Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, 410008 , Hunan, China
3. Department of Pathogeny Biology, School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University, Changsha, 410078, Hunan, China

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Long X, Qiu Y, Zhang Z, Wu M. Insight for Immunotherapy of HCMV Infection. Int J Biol Sci 2021; 17(11):2899-2911. doi:10.7150/ijbs.58127. Available from

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Graphic abstract

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a ubiquitous in humans, has a high prevalence rate. Young people are susceptible to HCMV infection in developing countries, while older individuals are more susceptible in developed countries. Most patients have no obvious symptoms from the primary infection. Studies have indicated that the virus has gradually adapted to the host immune system. Therefore, the control of HCMV infection requires strong immune modulation. With the recent advances in immunotherapy, its application to HCMV infections is receiving increasing attention. Here, we discuss the immune response to HCMV infection, the immune escape mechanism, and the different roles that HCMV plays in various types of immunotherapy, including vaccines, adoptive cell therapy, checkpoint blockade therapy, and targeted antibodies.

Keywords: human cytomegalovirus, immunotherapy, immune response, immune escape mechanism, infection