Int J Biol Sci 2021; 17(15):4396-4408. doi:10.7150/ijbs.62238 This issue
1. Department of Nephrology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.
2. 5th Medical Department, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, D-68167 Mannheim, Germany.
# These authors contributed equally to this work.
Rationale: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is characterized by the dysfunction of “post-mitotic” podocytes. The reentry of podocytes in the cell cycle will ultimately result in cell death. Mitotic arrest deficient 2-like protein 2 (MAD2B), an inhibitor of anaphase-promoting complex (APC)/cyclosome, precisely controls the metaphase to anaphase transition and ordered cell cycle progression. However, the role of MAD2B in FSGS podocyte injury remains unknown.
Methods: To explore MAD2B function in podocyte cell cycle reentry, we used conditional mutant mice lacking MAD2B selectively in podocytes in ADR-induced FSGS murine model. Additionally, KU-55933, a specific inhibitor of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) was utilized in vivo and in vitro to explore the role of ATM in regulating MAD2B.
Results: The expression of MAD2B in podocytes was dramatically increased in patients with FSGS and ADR-treated mice along with podocyte cell cycle reentry. Podocyte-specific knockout of MAD2B effectively attenuated proteinuria, podocyte injury, and prevented the aberrant cell cycle reentry. By bioinformatics analysis we revealed that ATM kinase is a key upstream regulator of MAD2B. Furthermore, inhibition of ATM kinase abolished MAD2B-driven cell cycle reentry and alleviated podocyte impairment in FSGS murine model. In vitro studies by site-directed mutagenesis and immunoprecipitation we revealed ATM phosphorylated MAD2B and consequently hampered the ubiquitination of MAD2B in a phosphorylation-dependent manner.
Conclusions: ATM kinase-MAD2B axis importantly contributes to the cell cycle reentry of podocytes, which is a novel pathogenic mechanism of FSGS, and may shed light on the development of its therapeutic approaches.
Keywords: podocyte, FSGS, cell cycle reentry, MAD2B, ATM