Int J Biol Sci 2022; 18(2):552-571. doi:10.7150/ijbs.64373 This issue


Advanced high resolution three-dimensional imaging to visualize the cerebral neurovascular network in stroke

Chudai Zeng, Zhuohui Chen, Haojun Yang, Yishu Fan, Lujing Fei, Xinghang Chen, Mengqi Zhang

1. Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China, 410008
2. National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China, 410008

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Zeng C, Chen Z, Yang H, Fan Y, Fei L, Chen X, Zhang M. Advanced high resolution three-dimensional imaging to visualize the cerebral neurovascular network in stroke. Int J Biol Sci 2022; 18(2):552-571. doi:10.7150/ijbs.64373. Available from

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Graphic abstract

As an important method to accurately and timely diagnose stroke and study physiological characteristics and pathological mechanism in it, imaging technology has gone through more than a century of iteration. The interaction of cells densely packed in the brain is three-dimensional (3D), but the flat images brought by traditional visualization methods show only a few cells and ignore connections outside the slices. The increased resolution allows for a more microscopic and underlying view. Today's intuitive 3D imagings of micron or even nanometer scale are showing its essentiality in stroke. In recent years, 3D imaging technology has gained rapid development. With the overhaul of imaging mediums and the innovation of imaging mode, the resolution has been significantly improved, endowing researchers with the capability of holistic observation of a large volume, real-time monitoring of tiny voxels, and quantitative measurement of spatial parameters. In this review, we will summarize the current methods of high-resolution 3D imaging applied in stroke.

Keywords: High resolution 3D imaging, Stroke, Neurovascular network, Synchrotron radiation, Two-photon microscopy, Photoacoustic imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging, Light-sheet microscopy