Int J Biol Sci 2022; 18(15):5809-5826. doi:10.7150/ijbs.77734 This issue
1. Graduate School of Biotechnology, and College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, 17104, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.
2. Department of Plant Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Republic of Korea.
Plant extract-mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is an eco-friendly and cost-effective biosynthesis method that is more suitable for biological applications than chemical ones. We prepared novel gold NPs (AuNPs), Cirsium japonicum mediated-AuNPs (CJ-AuNPs), using a biosynthetic process involving Cirsium japonicum (Herba Cirsii, CJ) ethanol extract. The physicochemical properties of CJ-AuNPs were characterized using spectrometric and microscopic analyses. The in vitro stability of CJ-AuNPs was studied for 3 months. Moreover, the selective human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell killing ability of CJ-AuNPs was verified in cancer and normal cells. An in vitro study revealed that CJ-AuNPs trigger oxidative stress and iron-dependent ferroptosis in AGS cells. Mechanistically, CJ-AuNPs induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), Fe2+, and lipid peroxidation accumulation, and mitochondrial damage by destroying the glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4)-dependent antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, in a xenograft mouse model implanted with AGS cells, treatment with 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg CJ-AuNPs for 16 days reduced tumor xenograft growth in a dose dependent manner in vivo without systemic toxicity. These results demonstrate that CJ-AuNPs exert anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo by inducing ferroptosis-mediated cancer cell death. This study, based on green-synthesized nanodrug-induced ferroptosis, provides new insight into potential developments in cancer therapies.
Keywords: Cirsium japonicum, Gold nanoparticles, Gastric cancer, Ferroptosis