1. Department of Cerebrovascular Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.
2. Hotchkiss Brain Institute and Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
#Equal contribution: SK and RS contributed equally
Rhythmicity of the circadian system is a 24-hour period, driven by transcription-translation feedback loops of circadian clock genes. The central circadian pacemaker in mammals is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which controls peripheral circadian clocks. In general, most physiological processes are regulated by the circadian system, which is modulated by environmental cues such as exposure to light and/or dark, temperature, and the timing of sleep/wake and food intake. The chronic circadian disruption caused by shift work, jetlag, and/or irregular sleep-wake cycles has long-term health consequences. Its dysregulation contributes to the risk of psychiatric disorders, sleep abnormalities, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, cancer, and obesity. A number of neurological conditions may be worsened by changes in the circadian clock via the SCN pacemaker. For stroke, different physiological activities such as sleep/wake cycles are disrupted due to alterations in circadian rhythms. Moreover, the immunological processes that affect the evolution and recovery processes of stroke are regulated by the circadian clock or core-clock genes. Thus, disrupted circadian rhythms may increase the severity and consequences of stroke, while readjustment of circadian clock machinery may accelerate recovery from stroke. In this manuscript, we discuss the relationship between stroke and circadian rhythms, particularly on stroke development and its recovery process. We focus on immunological and/or molecular processes linking stroke and the circadian system and suggest the circadian rhythm as a target for designing effective therapeutic strategies in stroke.
Keywords: Ischemic Stroke (ICH), Circadian clock, Immune system, Treatment and recovery