1. Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (THSTI), Faridabad, Haryana, India.
2. Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (DIPSAR), New Delhi, India.
3. Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University (DPSRU), New Delhi, India.
Perturbation in lipid homeostasis is one of the major bottlenecks in metabolic diseases, especially Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), which has emerged as a leading global cause of chronic liver disease. The bile acids (BAs) and their derivatives exert a variety of metabolic effects through complex and intertwined pathways, thus becoming the attractive target for metabolic syndrome treatment. To modulate the lipid homeostasis, the role of BAs, turn out to be paramount as it is essential for the absorption, transport of dietary lipids, regulation of metabolic enzymes and transporters that are essential for lipid modulation, flux, and excretion. The synthesis and transport of BAs (conjugated and unconjugated) is chiefly controlled by nuclear receptors and the uptake of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and BA conjugation via transporters. Among them, from in-vivo studies, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5) have shown convincing evidence for their key roles in lipid homeostasis and reversal of fatty liver disease substantially. BAs have a wider range of biological effects as they are identified as modulators for FXR and FATP5 both and therefore hold a significant promise for altering the lipid content in the treatment of a metabolic disorder. BAs also have received noteworthy interest in drug delivery research due to its peculiar physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. Here, we are highlighting the connecting possibility of BAs as an agonist for FXR and antagonist for FATP5, paving an avenue to target them for designing synthetic small molecules for lipid homeostasis.
Keywords: Fatty liver diseases, FXR, FATP5, Bile acids, cyp7a1, Triglycerides