Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(14):2479-2489. doi:10.7150/ijbs.48400

Review

Immune Response and COVID-19: A mirror image of Sepsis

Eduardo López-Collazo1,2,3✉, José Avendaño-Ortiz1,2, Alejandro Martín-Quirós4, Luis A. Aguirre1,2✉

1. The Innate Immune Response Group, IdiPAZ, La Paz University Hospital, Paseo de la Castellana 261, Madrid 28046, Spain.
2. Tumor Immunology Laboratory, IdiPAZ, La Paz University Hospital, Paseo de la Castellana 261, Madrid 28046, Spain.
3. CIBER of Respiratory Diseases (CIBERES), Madrid, Spain.
4. Emergency Department and Emergent Pathology Research Group, IdiPAZ La Paz University Hospital, Paseo de la Castellana 261, Madrid 28046, Spain.

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Citation:
López-Collazo E, Avendaño-Ortiz J, Martín-Quirós A, Aguirre LA. Immune Response and COVID-19: A mirror image of Sepsis. Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(14):2479-2489. doi:10.7150/ijbs.48400. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v16p2479.htm

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Abstract

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 virus and its associated disease COVID-19 have triggered significant threats to public health, in addition to political and social changes. An important number of studies have reported the onset of symptoms compatible with pneumonia accompanied by coagulopathy and lymphocytopenia during COVID-19. Increased cytokine levels, the emergence of acute phase reactants, platelet activation and immune checkpoint expression are some of the biomarkers postulated in this context. As previously observed in prolonged sepsis, T-cell exhaustion due to SARS-CoV-2 and even their reduction in numbers due to apoptosis hinder the response to the infection. In this review, we synthesized the immune changes observed during COVID-19, the role of immune molecules as severity markers for patient stratification and their associated therapeutic options.

Keywords: COVID-19, Sepsis, Immune response, Immune-checkpoints, T-cell exhaustion