Int J Biol Sci 2008; 4(4):215-222. doi:10.7150/ijbs.4.215
Qualification and application of an ELISA for the determination of Tamm Horsfall Protein (THP) in human urine and its use for screening of Kidney Stone Disease
1. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM, Penang, Malaysia.
2. Lam Wah Ee Hospital, Penang, Malaysia.
Lau WH, Leong WS, Ismail Z, Gam LH. Qualification and application of an ELISA for the determination of Tamm Horsfall Protein (THP) in human urine and its use for screening of Kidney Stone Disease. Int J Biol Sci 2008; 4(4):215-222. doi:10.7150/ijbs.4.215. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v04p0215.htm
Kidney stone disease affects 1 - 20% of the general population. At present, the diagnosis of a stone is done using radiography method when noticeable symptoms appeared. We developed a non-invasive quantitative assay for urinary THP, namely ELISA; whereby our previous study and other reports had shown the usefulness of THP as biomarker for kidney stone disease. Since urine is biological fluid that is easily obtainable, this method could be used as a screening assay for kidney stone prior to confirmation with radiography. The ELISA gave assay linearity r2 > 0.999 within the range of 109 ng/mL to 945 ng/mL THP. Assay precisions were < 4% (C.V.) for repeatability and < 5% (C.V.) for reproducibility. Assay accuracy range from 97.7% to 101.2% at the various THP concentrations tested. Assay specificity and sensitivity were 80% and 86%, respectively. The cut-off points at P < 0.05 were 37.0 and 41.2 μg/mL for male and female, respectively. The assay is cost effective and rapid whereby the cost for assaying each urine sample in duplicate is approximately USD0.35 and within 5 hours, 37 samples can be assayed alongside full range of standards and 3 QC samples in each plate. Furthermore, sample preparation is relatively easy where urine sample was diluted 10 times in TEA buffer. The usability of the ELISA method for diagnosis of kidney stone disease is evaluated with 117 healthy subjects and 58 stone formers.
Keywords: Kidney stone disease, ELISA, Tamm-Horsfall protein, Screening assay