1. Department of Thoracic Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Xiangya Road 87th, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, PR China.
2. Hunan Engineering Research Center for Pulmonary Nodules Precise Diagnosis & Treatment, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, PR China.
3. National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, PR China.
4. Institute of Medical Sciences, Xiangya Lung Cancer Center, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan, PR China.
5. Hunan Key Laboratory of Oncotarget Gene, Hunan Cancer Hospital & The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan, PR China.
tRNA is one of the most conserved and abundant RNA species, which plays a key role during protein translation. tRNA molecules are post-transcriptionally modified by tRNA modifying enzymes. Since high-throughput sequencing technology has developed rapidly, tRNA modification types have been discovered in many research fields. In tRNA, numerous types of tRNA modifications and modifying enzymes have been implicated in biological functions and human diseases. In our review, we talk about the relevant biological functions of tRNA modifications, including tRNA stability, protein translation, cell cycle, oxidative stress, and immunity. We also explore how tRNA modifications contribute to the progression of human diseases. Based on previous studies, we discuss some emerging techniques for assessing tRNA modifications to aid in discovering different types of tRNA modifications.
Keywords: tRNA modification, tRNA modifying enzyme, signaling pathways, biomarkers