Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 130021, China.
The mechanisms of immune dysfunction in alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) have garnered growing research interest in recent times. Alcohol-mediated immune dysfunction has been implicated as a potential cause of ALD-associated microbial infection and inflammatory response. The immune microenvironment of an organism is essentially a complex network of interactions between immune cells, cytokines, extracellular matrix, and other immune-related molecules. This microenvironment is highly adaptive and responsive to environmental cues. Epigenetic reprogramming of the immune microenvironment has recently emerged as a key driver of ALD progression, particularly in the context of endotoxin tolerance and immune disorders. Although epigenetic modifications are known to play an important role in the regulation of the immune microenvironment in ALD, the specific mechanisms and molecular processes by which this regulation is achieved are yet to be fully understood. This paper aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the effects of alcohol consumption on epigenetics, with special focus on summarizing the data on the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms involved in the effects of alcohol consumption on the immune microenvironment. In addition, this paper aims to present a review of the epigenetic modifications involved in different forms of ALD. This review is expected to offer new perspectives for the diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and prognostic assessment of ALD from an epigenetic perspective.
Keywords: alcohol-associated liver disease, immune microenvironment, epigenetic modifications, exosomes, cytokines and chemokines