Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(1):116-134. doi:10.7150/ijbs.35653

Review

Current Status of Therapeutic Approaches against Peripheral Nerve Injuries: A Detailed Story from Injury to Recovery

Ghulam Hussain1✉, Jing Wang2, Azhar Rasul3, Haseeb Anwar1, Muhammad Qasim4, Shamaila Zafar1, Nimra Aziz1, Aroona Razzaq1, Rashad Hussain5, Jose-Luis Gonzalez de Aguilar6,7, Tao Sun2✉

1. Neurochemicalbiology and Genetics Laboratory (NGL), Department of Physiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38000 Pakistan.
2. Center for Precision Medicine, School of Medicine and School of Biomedical Sciences, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, 361021 China
3. Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38000 Pakistan
4. Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38000 Pakistan
5. Department of Neurosurgery, Center for Translational Neuromedicine (SMD), School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box 645, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
6. Université de Strasbourg, UMR_S 1118, Strasbourg, France
7. INSERM, U1118, Mécanismes Centraux et Péripheriques de la Neurodégénérescence, Strasbourg, France

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Citation:
Hussain G, Wang J, Rasul A, Anwar H, Qasim M, Zafar S, Aziz N, Razzaq A, Hussain R, de Aguilar JLG, Sun T. Current Status of Therapeutic Approaches against Peripheral Nerve Injuries: A Detailed Story from Injury to Recovery. Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(1):116-134. doi:10.7150/ijbs.35653. Available from http://www.ijbs.com/v16p0116.htm

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Abstract

Peripheral nerve injury is a complex condition with a variety of signs and symptoms such as numbness, tingling, jabbing, throbbing, burning or sharp pain. Peripheral nerves are fragile in nature and can easily get damaged due to acute compression or trauma which may lead to the sensory and motor functions deficits and even lifelong disability. After lesion, the neuronal cell body becomes disconnected from the axon's distal portion to the injury site leading to the axonal degeneration and dismantlement of neuromuscular junctions of targeted muscles. In spite of extensive research on this aspect, complete functional recovery still remains a challenge to be resolved. This review highlights detailed pathophysiological events after an injury to a peripheral nerve and the associated factors that can either hinder or promote the regenerative machinery. In addition, it throws light on the available therapeutic strategies including supporting therapies, surgical and non-surgical interventions to ameliorate the axonal regeneration, neuronal survival, and reinnervation of peripheral targets. Despite the availability of various treatment options, we are still lacking the optimal treatments for a perfect and complete functional regain. The need for the present age is to discover or design such potent compounds that would be able to execute the complete functional retrieval. In this regard, plant-derived compounds are getting more attention and several recent reports validate their remedial effects. A plethora of plants and plant-derived phytochemicals have been suggested with curative effects against a number of diseases in general and neuronal injury in particular. They can be a ray of hope for the suffering individuals.

Keywords: Peripheral Nerve Injury, Pathophysiology, Surgical interventions, Non-surgical intervention, Plant-derived compounds