Int J Biol Sci 2021; 17(1):163-177. doi:10.7150/ijbs.53671

Review

Regulation of exosome production and cargo sorting

Hong Wei2,3, Qi Chen1,3, Li Lin1,3, Chunli Sha1,3, Taoqiong Li1,3, Yueqin Liu1,3, Xinming Yin1,3, Yuhao Xu5, Lu Chen1,3, Wujiang Gao1,3, Yuefeng Li4✉, Xiaolan Zhu1,3✉

1. Reproductive Center, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212001, China.
2. Department of Neurology, Affiliated ZhongDa Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjiang, Jiangsu, 210009, China.
3. Central Laboratory of the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212001, China.
4. Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212001, China.
5. Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212001, China.

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Citation:
Wei H, Chen Q, Lin L, Sha C, Li T, Liu Y, Yin X, Xu Y, Chen L, Gao W, Li Y, Zhu X. Regulation of exosome production and cargo sorting. Int J Biol Sci 2021; 17(1):163-177. doi:10.7150/ijbs.53671. Available from https://www.ijbs.com/v17p0163.htm

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Abstract

Cellular communication can be mediated by the exchange of biological information, mainly in the form of proteins and RNAs. This can occur when extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, secreted by a donor cell are internalized by an acceptor cell. Exosomes bear specific repertoires of proteins and RNAs, indicating the existence of mechanisms that control the sorting of molecules into them. Knowledge about loadings and processes and mechanisms of cargo sorting of exosomes is essential to shed light on the physiological and pathological functions of these vesicles as well as on clinical applications involving their use and/or analysis. In this review, we will discuss the molecular mechanisms associated with exosome secretion and their specific cargo sorting, with special attention to the sorting of RNAs and proteins, and thus the outcome and the emerging therapeutic opportunities of the communication between the exosome-producer and recipient cells.

Keywords: exosomes, production, cargo, sorting